a. Free Pass
A free pass is awarded for infringements on the court involving one player. The pass is taken where the infringement occurred by any player who is allowed in the area. The offending player does not have to stand beside the thrower taking the pass. If a free pass is awarded in the goal circle, the shooter may only pass the ball ? not shoot for goal.
b. Penalty Pass/Penalty Pass or Shot
A penalty pass is awarded for contact, intimidation and obstruction infringements. The pass is taken where the infringer was standing, except if it places the non-defending team at a disadvantage. Any player who is allowed in the area can take the pass. The penalised player must stand out of play. That is, beside and away from the player taking the pass and make no attempt to take part in play. This includes directing play, until the ball has left the throwers hands. If a penalty is given to a Goal Attack or Goal Shooter in the goal circle they are awarded a penalty pass or shot.
When the ball goes out of court it is thrown-in by an opponent of the team in the court that was last to touch it. The player taking the throw-in should place one or both feet behind the point where the ball crossed the line and make sure all other players are on the court before throwing the ball.
d. Toss Up
A toss up is used to put the ball in play in situations such as, simultaneous contact by opposing players or if the umpire cannot decide who last touched the ball out of court. The two players stand 0.9m (3 feet) apart, facing each other and their own goal end. Their arms should be straight with hands by their sides. Once in position, they must not move until the umpire has tossed it up from just below shoulder height of the shorter player, and blown the whistle. The ball may be caught or batted except directly at an opponent. A goal shooter or goal attack may shoot for goal from a successful possession at a toss up.