Goalball gradually evolved into a competitive game during the 1950s and 1960s, and was eventually nominated as a demonstration sport at the 1976 Summer Paralympics in Toronto.The sports first world championship was held in Austria in 1978. Goalball was added to the programme of the 1980 Summer Paralympics in Arnhem,becoming the first Paralympic sport designed exclusively for disabled players.International Blind Sports Federation IBSA, responsible for a range of sports for the blind and partially sighted, is the official governing body for the sport.
The lines of the court are made by placing tape over lengths of twine. This makes the line both visual for officials and tactile for players. The team area and landing zone, including the boundary, goal lines and high ball lines, are always marked in this way. Furthermore, the team area has six hash marks three at the front, one on either side, and one on the goal line to assist with player orientation.
The ball weighs 1.25 kg about 2.76 pounds and has eight holes and noise bells contained within. The balls circumference is around 76 cm about 30 inches.At Paralympic level the ball has been clocked leaving the hand in excess of 60 kph. Despite this, through training and some padding, there are very few injuries.
The Center is the player most responsible for defense. He or she typically lines up at the center hash mark at the front of the team area, though there are various defensive arrangements. The center is the most defensive position simply because he or she must be able to move both to the left and right to defend. He or she is also typically the defensive coordinator, as he or she can more accurately determine which opposing player has the ball due to being square to the opposing team.
The Left and Right Wings generally line up at the end of the hash marks coming off of the respective sidelines. Their main defensive responsibilities are keeping the ball out of either corner of the goal, though they also defend some towards the center. Typically, the wings are the main offense, allowing the Center to reserve his or her energy for defense, while they attempt to score. This is not to say that the Center is not also an offensive threat, just that he or she generally is more focused on keeping the ball out of his or her own net than putting it into the opponents.
The ball must hit in the players own landing zone, and anywhere in the neutral zone. So long as it hits each zone, the style of throw is entirely up to the player in question. Many players will take several strides and release the ball as close to their own highball line as possible; leaning low to ensure a legal throw. Some players will throw after spinning; transferring the momentum of the spin into additional velocity. Others are able to throw the ball so that it will bounce just once in each of the required zones. Most elite players, men and women, are effective when using multiple types of throws.